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Tlie data included in this volume pertain to the period ending 1973-74 unless otherwise specified. The south-west portion of the district has many ranges of low hills. The Income Tax Officer, Sawai Madhopur functions under the administrative control of the Inspecting Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax, Jaipur Range, Jaipur. The agriculture extension programme is carried out by the Dis- triet Agriculture Officer through the agency of the Panchayat Samiti. The District, Agriculture Officer is responsible for dookjng after ';all agricultural activities in the district. The following table gives details of the expenditure incurred on electrification and drinking water in the last five years in the districts; 1 . Source : Office of District Probation and Social Welfare Officer, Madhopur. 20 per month and Rs^G for a family having more than one destitute^. It scrutinises applications for charitable grants and other financial assistance for purposes like marriages of dependent daughters of ex-armed personnel and looks after the general welfare of ex-servicetncn, their dependents, serving soldiers and their families in the district. Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 19’46 8. Working Journalists (Conditions of Service and Misc. The climatological summary given in this gazetteer has been prepared by the Meteorological Department, Government of India. In the region of Karauli sub-division, hills become somewhat higher and more extensive, making the terrain, especially in the interior, more-hilly and in some places not easily approchablc. These hills consist chiefly df granite and sandstone, occasionally mixed with while and black marble gnd mica. GENERAL, 5 sub-division, famous and renowned historical forts occupying.strategic I)Osition.in,the olden times, crown the hills in these areas. The primary function of the Income Tax Officer' is to assess the income and wealth of persons having taxable income and wealth within the meaning of various sections of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and the Wealth Tax Act, 1957. He helps in the ■ preparation - of agricultural production programmes for the area and in carrying , schemes and programmes of the department including the conducting and supervising of agricultural demonstrations. In the case of disability pension scherhe age limit fixed is 21 years for the both male and female, and the rate of pension is Rs. The Collector of the district is the disbursing authority for these pensions. The Board has so far helped 20 families of soldiers killed during the Indo-Pakistan operations of 1970, and eight families of those who have become permanent invalidss. 2,000 and 25 bi'gfias of agricultural land by the Government. Price ; Rupees Twenty Five Obtainable froni t (1) DIRECTORATE OF DISTRICT GAZETTEERS, RAJASTHAN, JAIPUR (INDIA). These stamp vendors are appointed by the District Collector for the sale of judicial and non-judicial stamps at the district treasury as well as the sub-treasuries. The State Government has appointed a public prosecutor to plead their cases free of charge. 1,357 has been spent on free legal assistance to Scheduled Tribes and Rs. An eye hospital at Shri Mahavirji is under construction by. It was a famous fort of Northern India during the early mediae- vafperiod. 'Since the town 'lies at thefootofm hill and was ruled by a'Jagirdar named 'Bhim, it is called' Todabhim. The town is served by a' Municipal'Board, a police station, a higher secondary school, middle and primary schools, an 'Urdu Madarsa and a Chatshala. The town is known for its mangoes, pickles {Lnnji) and a milk product {Gunji\. A Collection of Treaties, Sanads and Engagements etc.

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As would be apparent, in Rajasthan the task is more of writing them afresh rather than revising them as the old gazetteers cover little ground for the dist- ricts created after the formation of Rajasthan, besides the fact that much of what is available in old gazetteers is either obsolete or irrelevant to the present circumstances. With irrigation facilities, good crops ol wheat, barley and gram are pro- duced in springi. 3i8 ^JASTHAT^ district GAZETTEERS— SAV/Ai MADHOPOR respective places. As on 31.3.1974, the staff of the office included one District Agriculture Officer, one Assistant Agronomist, one Assistant Plant Protection Officer, fifteen agricultural assistants,- Tive Mukkadams, forty-seven fieldmcn, one mechanic, five halii, one gardner, -two farm managers, eight investigators alongwith other ministerial staff Class IV cm_ployccs. 38,000 as a subsidy to 38 families of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes during the period 1973-74, at the rate of Rs. But, this has been stopped now and the State Government has initiated a new loan scheme in the district under which a sum of Rs. Besides these welfare schemes, other schemes have been initiated for the benefit of other needy sections of the society. The Collector of the district is the President of the Board and a senior ex-officer of armed forces is the vice-president.

The current series, therefore, in conformity with the pattern laid down by the Government of India and attuned to the changed socio-political and economic circumstances gives eloquent com- mentary on the changes occurring during the transitional period and contemporary life. 6 1,650 11,93,528 Totvns The Census of 1971 listed six towns in the district of Sawai Madhopur. The south and south-east portion of the district comprises hills and broken ground which lies within a tract of rugged region immediately above the narrow valley of the Chambal river. The height from the sea' level in the district varies from 1,500 to 2,000 ft^. A statement showing the revenue collected* from Central Excise during the period 1968-69 to 1974-75 is given below ’.t (Rupees) Year Income from' Excise duty 1968-69 2,39,07,367 • 1969-70 2,61,99,861 1970-71 2,49,49,690 1971-72 229,23,234 1972-73 2,44,88,702' 1973-74 2,32,65,907 1974-75 2.87,83,331 Income tax — For assessment and collection of income tax, wealth tax and gift tax etc. The posts of Assistant Plant Protection Officer and Assistant Agronomist were created after the inclusion of' Sawai Madhopur in the intensive agriculture programme from 1970. 4,000 per family is given for the construction of houses through the credit co-operative societies of the district. ‘UER SOCIAL -SERVICES 493 , Year Expenditure on electrification Expenditure on drinking water 1969-70 34.950 i ITBo ■ 1970-71 10,447 9,850 T971-t72 18,147 53,072 . The State Govern- ment has initiated an old age pension scheme and a disability pension scheme since 1964-65, for providing financial assistance to 4hc old and disabled persons of the district. There is one Secretary, one ministerial staff and one class IV employee.

28-43 CHAPTER III People Total population, Growth of population. Functions, Financial Resources; ZILA PARISH AD; APPENDICES I to V.' CHAPTER XV Education and Culture ) y Historical background. BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY INDEX PLATES 502-524 525-553 554-559 560-564 565-601 I-XII MAP CHA. •Villages falling dn its banks in the district are Banghera, Kachhi, Gun- •wala, Gota, Simath and Dans. Banganga or Utangan — Tfiis river has a very small course of flow in Sawai Madhopur district. -Water level iii the' eastern portion is from 5 metres to T8.inetres6. l Source : Office'bf Executive Engineer, Irrigation, Sawai Madhopur. • • GEOLOGY Geological Antiquity and Formation of the District r Sawai Madhopur is a land locked district bounded by Bharatpur, Alwar, Jaipur and Tonk districts and the Madhya Pradesh State. Technical assistance is also provided to the field stafi" of the Panchayat Samitis and to livestock farmers in the district.

PTER I GENERAL INTRODUCTION Origin of tlie name The district of Sawai Madhopar derives its name froin the head- ’ quarters town, of the same name. It flows from west to east in the north of the district and passes through Mahuwa tahsi K. - (jroun.d water in this district has, in general, yery low to low salinity Svith minimum concentration in alluvium and litnestone, while it , T.’ Source :01Hce of the Survey of India, Western Circle Office, Jaipur. It extends over in the south-eastern part of Rajasthan and falls in parts of Survey of India topo-sheet nos. He organises cattle fairs and is the Co-ordinating Officer for all the schemes and activities of the Animal Husbandry Department in the district.

GAZETTEER OF INDIA RAJASTHAN SAWAI MADHOPUR RAJASTHAN DISTRICT GAZETTEERS SAWAi MADHQPUR By^. of vehicles registered Income from regis- tration fee 1965-66 51 1966-67 79 1967-68 72 1968-69 93 1969-70 50 1970-71 67 1971-72 56 1972-73 66 1973-74 72 1,354 1,949 1,686 2,445 1,126 1,210 1,042 3,713 4.088 •REVEOTEADMikisf RATION -^r. Under this scheme, graduates and post-graduates of Scheduled Tribes received stipend amounting to Rs. Situated in the r west of Katala, it is also constructed on a huge scale. The main hall, of the temple is very big and the main idol of Shri Mahavir is seated on a ■ lotus flower. I, S5urc3 : Office of th; Director, Survey of India, Western Circle, Jaipur. It occppies^ aaarea of 1,933 acres and is inhabited 640 persons (1971). place is impor- tant.fonits old historic fort i Tamangarh, which a . It is situated^ at 26°55' north latitude and 76‘‘49' east longitude. Census of India 1971, Series 18, Rajasthan, parts X-A & X-B, District Census Hand- book, Sawai Madhopur District, p. Among the picnic spots of the town are Balasagar and Ramghata.

(MISS) SAVITRI GUPTA DIRECTORATE OF DISTRICT GAZETTEERS, GOVERNMENT OF RAJASTHAN, JAIPUR. ^17 : ^ ; Stamps fees— Under the Rajasthan Stamps Act, 1952, the Dis- trict Treasury Officer has been empowered to function as custodian of stamps. He is responsible for storage and sale of stamps to the stamp vendors who are authorised to function under him. 1,66,600 and graduates and post-graduates of Scheduled Castes received stipend amounting to Rs. The Social Welfare Department in the district also helps persons belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes against whom charges under the civil, criminal and revenue law are lodged. In addition, the temples of Gopaiji and , Hanuihanji, as also a mosque, attract visitors. ' Tarhati, better known in history as .-Tamangarh fort, is a small .village in Karauli tahsil situatedi, at ,26°42' north latitude and 77“ 14' east longitude. -552 RAJASTHAN DISTRICT GAZETTEERS— SAW AI MADHOPUR The village wfhichlies.onihc/Karauli-Nasalpur Tanipiir bus loute, ■is approached^by.a itarred road.- It is 13 km. It is 42 km, by.a tarred road from Hindaun, the subrdivi- sional headquarters and 150 km. Thenearests railway station is hlandawar or Mahwa . (42 km.), Regular buses .between Todabhitp, j Mandawar, and Hindaun, The town is well con- nected with Mahwa^Karauli,and5hri tarred roads, 'The wofd Tod&bhim is composed Of two different words, Toda and : Bhim.' Toda (in the' local'diaiect) means a mountain and Bhim was the name of a former Jagirdar. A cattle fair is arranged by the Municipal Board in the month of June.

(3) AUTHORISED AGENTS, LIST OBTAINABLE FROM THE DIRECTOR, DISTRICT GAZETTEERS, RAJASTHAN. Printed at : Rajasthan Printing Works, oole Bazar, (Rajasthan). Shape -The district looks rectangular in its general shape and is one of the eastern districts of Rajasthaha. District Census Handbook, Sawai Madhopur District, Town and Village Directory and Primary Census Abstract, pp. * Co-ordinates of the towns have been given on the basis of information supplied by the Survey of India, Office of the Western Circle, Jaipur.- 2. At present there is one stamp vendor at the district headquarters and 14 stamp vendors at sub-treasury head- quarters. Accordingly, the Govern- ment of Rajasthan started the Scheme in September, 1970 and has opened nutrition centres in almost all the districts of the State. The Social Welfare Department provides grant-in-aid to different Panchayat Samitis of the district every year for the purchase of agricultural implements and bullocks, providing facilities for irrigation and digging of wells, establishing and developing cottage industries, grant of scholarships, construction of housing colonies, provision of drinking water and lighting facilities in the colonies of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. It remained a famous seat of Jainism and a centre of the Pashupati sect of the Saivas in the 12lh century. Census of India 1 961, Rajasthan, District Census Handbook Sawai Madhopur District, p. Other ameni- ties available ' here sare: a primary-health centre, -a- veterinary dispensary and a Unani'Davdkhana, branch offices of the Btate'Bank of Bikaner and 'Jaipur and the'Land-Mortgage -Bank, Post "arid" Telegraph office and; a -I.- Ctriiius^ofiindia '• Rajasthan, i.£listrict\C'ensus; Haiidboo^c,'Sawai Madhopur Distript, . Census of India 1971, Series 18, Rajasthan,, parts X-4 & X-B, District Census Hand- book, Sawai Madhopur District, p.

Preface The Gazetteer of Sawai Madhopur district is the twenty-third in the series of the District Gazetteers which are being brought out by the State Government in collaboration with the Central Gazetteers Unit of the Government of India. The north-western corner of the district' consisting of tahsil Mahuwa protrudes deep between Jaipur and Bharatpar districts and touches even Alwar district. Its eastern and -northern sides consisting 'of Hihdaun sub-division prpject ' outward whereas tahsil Lalsot of Jaipur district protrudes in the western side of Bawai hfadhopur district. Office of the Survey of India, Western Circle Office, Jaipur. ' Stamp vendors are allowed a commission on sale of judicial stamps at the rate of 1.55 per cent at all places and 3.10 per -cent for non-judicial stamps at the district headquarters. At present (1973-74) the district is having 75 nutrition centres run by Social Welfare Department at Nadauti, Bonli, Sapotra, Mahwa and Todabhim Panchayat Samiti areas S. Source : Officj of the District Probation and Social Welfare Officer, Sawai Madhopur. For digging of agricultural wells financial assistance of Rs. But it could not withstand Muslim invasions and plunder and, was devastated.

59 grams 1 ton= 1,016.05 kilograms Temperature t° Fahre Dheit=9/5 (T” centigrade)° 32 Metric Weights & Measures Length 1 millimetres =1 centimetre 100 centimetres=:l metre 1,000 metres= 1 kilometre Area 100 square millimetres— 1 square centimetre 10,000 square centinietres= 1 square metre or centiarc 100 square inctres=I arc 100 ares— 1 hectare 100 hectares or 10,00,000 square metres = 1 square kilometre Volume 10,00,000 cubic centimctrcs=:l cubic metre Capacity 1,000 millilitres =1 litre 1,000 litres=l kilolitre Weight 1,000 milh‘grams=l gram 1,000 grams=:l kilogram 100 Jcilograms= 1 quintal 1,000 kilograms=l tonne 200 milligrams =1 carat TABLE OF CONTEMTS CHAPTER r General INTRODUCTION— Origin of the name. History of the district as an administrative unit, Towns; TOPOGRAPHY — Shape, Natural divisions, Hill system, Plateau and plains. Drinking and gambling; HOME LIFE — Dwellings, Dress, Ornaments, Food, Music and dance, Festivals, Muslim ii festivals, Christian festivals; COMMUNAL LTFF — Games and amusements, Fairs, Social change; APPFNDICES I to III. Consolidation of land holdings, Rajasthan Bhoodan Move- ment, Ceiling on land holdings. 326-356 CHAPTER XIII Other Departments STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS— Agriculture De- partment, Animal Husbandry Department, Co-operative Department, District Treasury_ Office, Economics and Statis- tics Department. College edu- cation, Village Level Workers Training Centre Sawai Madhopur, Oriental Education, Social Education; LIBRA- RIES; CULTURE; LITERARY ACTIVITIES- Botanical and Zoological gardens; APPENDICES I to III. The river is impassable when in flood, but there is a ferry at Rajmahal. Madhopur district flows in- easterly direction till it receives the Morel river coming north-east and then goes south and finally meets the Chambal riyer at Rameshwarghat in Khandar tahsil. Tlie famous Jain temple Shri Mahavirji is situated on its bank neat Chandan Gaon in tahsil Hindaun. , These streams ultimately lose their identities in the Morel. Morel in Malarna Chor tahsil, Moriya’ Manjhole in tahsil Borili' 'Na^falai in Karailli tahsil, Juggar in the Hindaun tahsil; Mamchari and Neehder in Karauli tahsil and Kalisil and Khirkhiri in Sapotfa tahsil'^. According to this survey tire main source of ground, water is ^fu Viurh of quarterhary age. sandsfoiie^imestone of Vihdft^ii systei^ also form aquifers that yield moderate discharged The schi Ss.- and phy^Iites- of- the "^Aravalli and the "Delhi system also form the acefuifers" but ' with poor discharge. 8 RAJASTHAN DISTRICT GAZETTEERS— SAWAI MADHOPUR is slightly higher in slates and phyllites. (5) Mandrayal (1) Garhi ka-gaon, (2) Lagra, (3) Bhankri, (4) Gurdah, (5) Baharda, (6) Dliorefa, (7) Nee- dar, (8) Rodhai, (9) Nayagaon, (10) Mandrayal, (11) Awand, (12) Chandelipura,' Sawai (1) Chauth ka Barwara (1) Tapar, (2) Mahapura, (3) Madhopur Shiwar, (4) Sarsop, (5) Isarda, (6) Ghotlira, (7) Didayach, (8) Pawdera, (9) Rajwana, (10) Bal- riya, (ll)Bhedola, (12) Chauth ka Barwara, REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 321 APPENDIX I (Contd.) 1 .. The main duties of the District Animal Husbandry Officer are inspection of veterinary hospitals and dispensaries and supervision of other activities relating to castration, inoculation etc. This money is used for bhog and for payments to pujaris etc.

Desert; RIVER SYSTEM AND WATER RESOURCES— Lakes and tanks. CHAPTER IV Agriculture and Irrigation GENERAL AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS -Land utili- sation, Co-operative farming. Tenancy rights, Revenue cases; OTHER SOURCES OF REVENUE; CENTRAL SOURCES OF REVENUE; APPENDIX 1. Evaluation Organisation, Forest Depart- ment, Industries Department, Irrigation Department (Cons- truction Division), Public Works Department (Buildings and Roads), Public Health Engineering Department, Public Relations Department, Social Welfare Department; CENT- RAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS— District Natio- nal Savings Office Sawai Madhopur. CHAPTER XVI Medical and Public Health Services EARLY HISTORY; GENERAL STANDARD OF HEALTH— Vital statistics. Longevity, Epedemics; MODERN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS— Hospitals, Primary Health Centres, Special Institutions, Medical Personnel; FAMILY PLANNING; INDIGENOUS SYSTEM OF MEDICINE; SANITATION— Water supply; APPENDICES I to IV. In the hot .months the river bed is dry but it becomes trecherous after the rains. The Banas forms a common boundry between sab-divisions of Karauli and Sawai Madhopur and its length' in' the district is nearly 106 km. Source : Ofl Sce of the Survey of India Western Circle Ofi Bcer, Jaipur. Other villages on its bank in the district t\re Kalkar, Samet, Kandrah, Saikhpur, Ankhera, Mudanpur, Lipaoli, Salempur, Tigria and Dcor besides Pali. The rivers and streams in the district are very helpful in increasing the supply of sub-soil water in wells by percolation^. Ground Water Resources A fairly detailed survey of ground water in different blocks in Sawai ‘ Madhopur district has been ■. The depth of water level varies from less than 3 metres to 25 metres in various parts of the district^. Source : Office of the Chief Engineer, Rajasthan Ground Water Dep'artmenl, ' ; ' -Jodfapurr ’ ■ -6,.. The water in general is suitable both for irrigation and domestic purposes. (2) So orwal '(3) Khilchipur (4) Sawai Madhopur ' ■ ■ (5) Kushtala Khandar (1) Bahrawada Kalan (2) Khandar Bonli (1) Bbnli (]) Bhagvvalgarli, (2) Lorwara, (3) Jatwara Kalan, (4) Ajnoti, (5) Sunari, (6) Soorwal, (7) Menpura, 52. He also gives guidance for the improvement of livestock. Muslim Wakfs The Rajasthan Board of Muslim Wakfs, Jaipur formed under the Central Wakf Act, 1954, supervises the functions of Mutmvallis of Awakfs located in Rajasthan.

The town Sa Wai Madhopur, which is walled, takes its name from Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh I, chief of the erstwhile Jaipur State (1751-1768 a. Villages on its banks include Tudana, Birkbera, Datapur, Sahidpur, Pali and Thiteri. Source ; Office of the' Survey of India, Westem Circle Office, Jaipur. 54/A, B, C and F- Physiographically, the district is characterised by the northern extension of the great Vindbyan Plateau covering the south-eastern part of the district^. Besides, Animal Husbandry Extension Officer has the duty to select the farmers eligible for receiving cattle under the cattle distribution scheme and to implement Dairy Farming Schemes. Source : Office of the District Animal Husbandry Officer, Tonk. Source : Office of the Assistant Registrar, Co-operative Department, Sawai Madhopur.

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